An international agreement made in 1997 (in the Japanese city of Kyoto), the Kyoto Protocol, sets emission reduction targets for developed countries and establishes mechanism to reduce the emissions of developing countries. The Kyoto Protocol is an addendum to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It took one year for the member countries of the UNFCCC to decide that the Convention had to be augmented by an agreement with stricter demands for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Convention took effect in 1994, and by 1995, governments had begun negotiations on a protocol - an agreement linked to the existing treaty, but standing on its own. The text of the Kyoto Protocol was adopted unanimously in 1997, but it didn't enter into force until 16 February 2005. The Protocol's major feature is its mandatory targets on greenhouse gas emissions for the worlds leading economies - but only applicable to those developed countries which had ratified it. The notable exceptions were the US and Australia, the latter ratified Kyoto official in early 2008. These targets range from - 8% to +10% of a country's individual 1990 emissions levels - 'with a view to reducing their overall emissions of gases by at least 5% below existing 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008-2012'. Future mandatory targets are expected to be established for 'commitment periods' after 2012.